Die Technik des Schiedsrichterns

Referee's Manual for Two-Person Officiating

1 Introduction

The mechanics of officiating is a system designed as a practical working method to facilitate the task of the officials on the playing court. It is intended to help them obtain the best possible position, enabling decisions concerning infractions of the rules to be taken correctly.

Common sense is a vital pre-requisite in a good official. A clear and thorough understanding of, not only the Official Basketball Rules, but also the spirit of the game, is absolutely essential. By penalising every technical infraction that occurs, the official will only succeed in producing dissatisfied spectators, players and coaches.

This manual is designed to standardise the mechanics and to prepare an official for the modern game.

Our aim is to add uniformity and consistency to the already acquired wealth of experience amongst the various officials.

All officials are required to follow these fundamental principles. The rest is up to them.

2 Preparation before the game

2.1 Arrival at venue
2.2 Meeting of officials
2.3 Physical preparation
2.4 Pre-game duties

3 Beginning of the periods

3.1 Administration before the beginning of the periods
3.2 Opening toss
3.3 Movement of officials

4 Positioning and responsibilities of officials

4.1 Officiating techniques
4.2 Division of responsibilities on the playing court
4.3 Trail official - positioning and responsibilities
4.4 Trail official - practical advice
4.5 Lead official - positioning and responsibilities
4.6 Lead official - practical advice
4.7 Trail and Lead official - Further practical advice
4.8 Pressing defences
4.9 Throw-in with pressing defence
4.10 Trapping defences

5 Out-of-bounds and throw-in situations

5.1 Responsibility for the lines
5.2 Throw-ins
5.3 Twenty-four second clock
5.4 Ball returned to the backcourt

6 Shooting situations

6.1 Flight of the ball
6.2 Goal tending and Interference
6.3 Three-point field goal attempts
6.4 End of playing time for a period or extra period

7 Signals and Procedures

7.1 Signals
7.2 Violations
7.3 Fouls
7.4 Switching after fouls
7.5 Team control foul
7.6 Foul and successful field goal
7.7 Double foul
7.8 Positioning of officials after foul
7.9 Both officials calling

8 Free-throw Situations

8.1 Trail official
8.2 Lead official
8.3 Free throws without line up of players

9 Time-outs and Substitutions

9.0 Time-outs and Substitutions
9.1 Administration of time-out
9.2 Time-out after successful field goal or last or only free throw
9.3 Administration of substitution

10 End of playing time

10.1 Checking the scoresheet

11 Review comments

11.1 Review comments

12 Conclusion

12.1 Conclusion

Officials' Signals

The hand signals illustrated in these rules are the only official signals. While reporting to the scorer's table it is strongly recommended to verbally support the communication. It is important that the table officials are familiar with these signals.
Hand signals ≡ Game clock signals
Hand signals ≡ Scoring
Hand signals ≡ Substitution and Time-out
Hand signals ≡ Informative
Hand signals ≡ Violations
Hand signals ≡ Number of Players
Hand signals ≡ Type of Fouls
Hand signals ≡ Special Fouls
Hand signals ≡ Foul Penalty Administration: Reporting to Table
Hand signals ≡ Foul Penalty Administration: Administrating Free Throws – Active Official (Lead)
Hand signals ≡ Foul Penalty Administration: Administrating Free Throws – Passive Official (Trail)

Quelle: Referees' Manual - Two-Person Officiating [ FIBA Central Board, 17. April 2010 ]